• Infection is most likely the leading cause of epilepsy worldwide. If there is evidence of a brain infection causing seizures, this is classified as an infectious cause of epilepsy.
• Epilepsy can occur due to genetic reasons. It sometimes run-in the family and sometimes it is due to acquired genetic changes.
• It can also occur due to low levels of oxygen during birth.
• Epilepsy can be caused by conditions that cause the immune system to attack brain cells.
• “Birth defects affecting the brain are a common cause of epilepsy, especially in those whose seizures are uncontrolled by anti-seizure drugs. Some congenital defects that have been linked to epilepsy include focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, and tuberous sclerosis. There are numerous other brain abnormalities that have been linked to epilepsy,” says Dr Bansal.
• Brain scarring after a head injury, brain damage after a stroke and tumor can also cause epilepsy.